Ovarian causes:

– Polycystic ovary syndrome:

It is often responsible for infertility in women.

Elevated insulin levels stimulate excess production of the hormone androgen, which cause some of the unfertilized eggs to disintegrate, leading to inconsistent or no ovulation. Most women with PCOS have multiple benign cysts in their ovaries.

– Ovulation Disorder:

Ovulation disorders are caused because of the malfunction of the reproductive hormones in the hypothalamus or the pituitary gland or by certain problems in the ovary. Following could be some reasons to look at –

– FSH and LH secretion:

These hormones secreted by the pituitary gland regulate ovulation. They are secreted each month in a specific pattern. Any disturbance in this pattern caused by excess physical or emotional stress, a very high or very low body weight, recent substantial weight gain or loss can affect the ovulation process greatly. A major indicator of this malfunction is irregular or no menstruation.

– Luteal phase defect:

This defect occurs when the ovary does not produce the required amounts of progesterone after ovulation. Progesterone is an important hormone playing an important part in preparing the uterine lining for the fertilized egg to be placed.

– Premature ovarian failure:

Caused usually by an autoimmune response, this leads to loss of eggs in the ovary and decrease in estrogen production.

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a major cause of female infertility worldwide. PID comprises a variety of infections caused by different bacteria that affect the reproductive organs, appendix, and parts of the intestine that lie in the pelvic area. The sites of infection most often implicated in infertility are in the fallopian tubes, a specific condition referred to as salpingitis.

Causes of PID.

– Sexually transmitted diseases (cause of most PID). Chlamydia trachomatis is an infectious organism that causes 75% of infertility in the fallopian tubes. Gonorrhea is responsible for most of the remaining cases.

– Pelvic tuberculosis

– Non sterile abortions

– Ruptured appendix

Effects of PID.

Severe or frequent attacks of PID can eventually cause scarring, abscess formation, and tubal damage that result in infertility. About 20% of women who develop symptomatic PID become infertile. PID also significantly increases the risk of ectopic pregnancy (implantation of the embryo in the fallopian tubes). The severity of the infection, not the number of the infections, appears to pose the greatest risk for infertility.


like tuberculosis, sexually transmitted diseases-causing hydrosalpinx and tubo -ovarian masses

Abdominal Diseases

The most common of these are appendicitis and colitis, causing inflammation of the abdominal cavity which can affect the fallopian tubes and lead to scarring and blockage

Previous Surgeries

Pelvic or abdominal surgery can result in adhesions that alter the tubes in such a way that eggs cannot travel through them.

Ectopic Pregnancy

This is a pregnancy that occurs in the tube itself and, even if carefully and successfully overcome, may cause tubal damage and is a potentially life-threatening condition

Lifestyle causes

Infertility in women is not necessarily related to any abnormalities in the reproductive organs. It might occur due to various causes.

– Age

Female fertility declines sharply after the age of 35

Dr. Sherman has quoted in his book about infertility in woman as “Only 1% of women in their early 20′s are infertile, in late 20′s 6% women are infertile, and in around mid 30′s about 25% of women are infertile and lastly among the women around 40 years old about 60% are infertile, beyond this age fertility is unsure”.

– Weight

Being overweight or obese (fat levels that are 10 – 15% above normal) can contribute to infertility in various ways. Obesity is also associated with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), an endocrine disorder that can cause infertility.

Being Underweight. Body fat levels 10 – 15% below normal can completely shut down the reproductive process. Women at risk include: Women with eating disorders, such as anorexia or bulimia.

Women on very low-calorie or restrictive diets are at risk, especially if their periods are irregular.

Strict vegetarians might have difficulties if they lack important nutrients, such as vitamin B12, zinc, iron, and folic acid.

– Smoking

Cigarette smoking can harm a woman’s ovaries and contribute to a decrease in eggs. Studies show that women who smoke are more likely to reach menopause earlier than women who do not smoke.

– Alcohol and Caffeine

Excessive Alcohol and caffeine use may contribute to infertility.

– Stress

High stress levels may interfere with ovulation and the body’s ability to conceive. When planning to fall pregnant, women should learn to manage their stress through relaxation techniques

– Marathon runners, dancers, and others who exercise very intensely.

– Exposure to environmental hazards (such as herbicides, pesticides, and industrial solvents) may affect fertility.


If you have been unable to conceive after 1 year of unprotected sex, talk with your doctor about having your fertility evaluated. Fertility testing should especially be performed if a woman is over 35 years old or if either partner has known risk factors for infertility. An analysis of the man’s semen should be performed before the female partner undergoes any invasive testing.

Tests to determine infertility

– Blood tests

– Ultrasound of the ovaries

– Hysterosalpingography to check for physical problems of the uterus and fallopian tubes

– Laparoscopy to check the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and uterus for disease and physical problems


Lifestyle changes

There are various changes in the lifestyle that women have adopted as a norm and part of their life that can be a cause to the infertility. Some of these lifestyle changes that cause infertility are explained below:


Women should have enough body weight if they will be able to have a baby. It is considered unsafe during pregnancy if the weight of the pregnant woman is less than the recommended. women who are very underweight have been found to be having a lesser chance of getting pregnant than women who are not very lean. Many adolescents go to extreme lengths to maintain their weight and this may cause infertility.


Women who are minimally overweight may not encounter any problems, but women who are grossly obese and overweight can be infertile.

Smoking and alcoholism

This has had a major impact on the ability of women to become pregnant and have children. This is because of the fact that these habits along with substance abuse can cause a person to become impotent.

Sexually transmitted diseases

With increasing pre marital sex and also affairs within a marriage, there is a higher risk of women being affected by sexually transmitted diseases. This is seen in the high number of HIV victims all over the world. Infidelity and infertility can have a link because of the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases.

Late marriage

When women are past their prime, the fertility decreases. So late marriages have been an increasing reason for women being infertile.

Lack of exercise

Women are increasingly participating in desk jobs around the world, leading to a sedentary lifestyle. This has had an impact on their physical fitness leading to infertility.


– Staying hydrated by consuming a lot of water will not only help in proper functioning of all your reproductive organs but will also provide natural fluid for the sperms to reach the cervix. So drink filtered or spring water and increase your fertility levels.

– Green leafy vegetables especially spinach is loaded with antioxidants, iron and folic acid all needed to maintain the good health of your reproductive organs. Folic acid present in spinach not only assists you in getting pregnant by generating viable eggs but also prevents defects in newborns.

– Include a healthy dose of orange and yellow vegetable in your daily diet as they are good sources of antioxidants and beta carotene. Beta carotene helps in correcting hormonal imbalance and also eliminates the chance of miscarriage.

– Suffering from endometriosis or uterus fibroids then gorge on broccoli, cabbage and other cruciferous vegetables. These vegetables contain phyto-nutrients which helps in regulating estrogens metabolism.

– If your problem is irregular menstrual cycles them sweet potatoes, carrots and peas are must haves. These vegetables contain beta carotene which helps in regulating menstrual flow thereby increasing your fertility.

– Enjoy a daily serving of fruits rich in Vitamin C such as blueberries, papaya, oranges, kiwi and strawberries which offer lot of nutritional benefits to women that are planning to conceive.

– Dairy products and lean animal proteins such as fish are rich sources of amino acid that helps in generating fertility hormones FSH and LH. So include them in your diet and see your dream of getting pregnant realized soon.

– Reach out for whole grain bread and tortillas instead of bakery products made of fine flour as they are rich sources of iron and vitamin B needed for enhancing fertility hormones.

– You need to eat right fats if you wish to get pregnant. So a handful of nuts like almonds or walnuts which are great sources of omega 3 fatty acid should be included in your diet.

– Lastly consume vegetable proteins in moderations especially tofu and other soy products which will help you in attaining ideal pre pregnancy weight and will therefore help you in getting pregnant.














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